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Rhizosphaera Needle Cast Diagnostic Guide

Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii

Rhizosphaera needle cast (Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii) is a foliar disease of spruce trees. It is most common in trees growing outside of their native range. Rhizosphaera starts on the inner and lower growth and progresses upward through the tree. It can take up to 15 months for the needles to show visible symptoms after the initial infection. Young trees may be killed by this disease, but usually branches die off after 3-4 consecutive years of defoliation, causing trees to look disfigured.

Trees at Risk

Spruce, especially Colorado blue Spruce, are at risk for Rhizosphaera needle cast.

Colorado Blue Spruce

Symptoms

  • Symptoms usually begin on the inner and lowest portions of the tree and progress upward.
  • Severely infected trees may hold only the current year's needles; whereas, a healthy spruce will retain needles 5 to 7 years.
  • Two year old needles turn yellowish brown to purple in mid-summer.
  • Lower branch dieback.
  • Tiny fruiting bodies (pycnidia) protrude through the stomata of the infected needles. Under a hand lens, these stomata appear as fuzzy black spots instead of their usual healthy white color.
Rhizosphaera Needle Cast

Edward L. Barnard, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org

Rhizosphaera Needle Cast

Edward L. Barnard, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org

Biology

  • A healthy spruce will retain its needles 5 to 7 years, whereas a spruce severely infected with Rhizosphaera needle cast may hold only the current year's needles.
  • Rhizosphaera needle cast infects needles on the lower branches first and gradually progresses up the tree.
  • This pattern holds true for most needle diseases on conifers and is the result of more favorable conditions for disease development near the ground.
  • Under epidemic conditions, lower branches may be killed by this fungus.
  • Although needles on new growth become infected in May and June, symptoms are not visible until late fall or the following spring, when infected needles turn purple to brown and begin to drop.
  • Tiny fruiting bodies of the Rhizosphaera fungus protrude through the stomata of the infected needles.
  • During wet weather in late spring, spores are released from these fruiting bodies and are rain splashed onto newly developing needles where infection occurs and the disease cycle is repeated.

Treatment Strategy

Early identification of Rhizosphaera can prevent major damage to individual trees and prevent the spread to nearby trees. Protecting new growth as it emerges is very important. For best effectiveness, fungicides should be applied when the emerging needles are half elongated (1/2 to 2 inches in length). Heavily infected trees may require several years of fungicide applications. Cambistat™ has not shown a direct effect in reducing Rhizosphaera symptoms in trials, but it should be considered to improve the health and vigor of spruce trees. Multiple trials with Cambistat™ have shown a reduction in cytospora canker on Colorado blue spruce.

Other Treatment Practices

  • Maintain tree health, and monitor for any disease/insect problems.
  • Cambistat™ to improve tree health and vigor and to reduce the severity of cytospora canker.
  • Treat spruce for Pine Needle Scale using Transtect™.
  • Foliar Spray using Junction

    Dosage: 20 – 2 oz packets per 100 gallons water.
    Timing: When needles are ½ 2 inches in length
    Re-Treatment: 7-14 day intervals through infection period.
    Junction
    Junction
    $122.71
  • Foliar Spray using Manzate Pro-Stick T&O

    Dosage: 1-2 lbs per 100 gallons water.
    Timing: When needles are ½ 2 inches in length
    Re-Treatment: 7-10 day intervals through infection period.
    Manzate Pro-Stick T&O
    Manzate Pro-Stick T&O
    $27.20
  • Foliar Spray using CuPRO 5000

    Dosage: 3 lbs per 100 gallons water.
    Timing: When needles are ½ 2 inches in length
    Re-Treatment: 3-4 weeks later
    CuPRO 5000
    CuPRO 5000
    $32.76

Expected Results

Results from fungicide applications will not begin to be noted until the following season and clients should be urged to commit to at least 2-3 seasons of fungicide applications.

A Diagnostic Guide is designed to help you identify a pest issue and management solutions. Always refer to product label for all rates and approved uses. Some images courtesy forestryimages.org. Use of the images does not imply endorsement of treatments by forestryimages.org

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